Over the years I have had to replace various firewall devices at co-location racks, and have equally many times been annoyed by the time it has taken to to clear the upstream (co-lo) router/gateway of the apparent stale ARP entries that point to the MAC of the retiring device. Since the external IP normally stays the same, the upstream router/gateway becomes confused and it takes some time, say, half an hour, until the upstream device cache expiration is reached and the traffic starts to flow normally again.
Facing once again such replacement I this time had to figure it out because the traffic of this particular installation could not be interrupted for 30 minutes (or however long it would take for the upstream cache to clear). I then came across Brian O’Neill’s 2012 article Changing of the Guard â€“ Replacing a firewall and gratuitous ARP that introduced a solution in situations where there is no administrative access to the upstream devices (so that an immediate purge of the ARP cache could be triggered). Exactly what I was looking for!
In the article Brian uses a Linux server temporarily with a spoofed MAC address of the new firewall appliance to trigger the ARP cache flush with help of arping command. In my case I was installing Shorewall on Ubuntu 12.04, so I could use arping from the firewall server itself. I went ahead and installed arping (apt-get install arping), but it turned out the default arping package on Ubuntu does not include the required “-U” (‘unsolicited’, or gratuitous ARP). Fortunately an alternative package “iputils-arping” implements the unsolicited switch. With iputils-arping installed the command is still “arping”, and so the command Brian offered works as-is:
arping â€“U â€“c 5 â€“I eth1 192.168.1.1
Where “-c” indicates how many times the information is broadcast, “-I” obviously defines the interface connected to the upstream router/gateway, and the IP is the external IP of your firewall/gateway device.